The Devil’s Arrows are a row of three prehistoric standing stones located in a field on the outskirts of Boroughbridge.
The stones exist in a wider, complex, prehistoric landscape, a recent archaeological survey of the surrounding area uncovered a number of features including a double timber post row and an associated ditch, extensive flint scatters and grooved ware pottery.
The tallest stones is 22.5 feet high making it the second tallest prehistoric standing stone in the UK after the Rudston Monolith at 26 feet. Graeme Chappell recently informed me that the Rudston Monolith, 44 miles away, is aligned precisely due East of the Arrows.
The antiquarian John Leland visited the town sometime between 1535 and 1540 and described the row as four upright stones with no mention of a fallen fifth stone
..little without this Towne on the west part of Watiling-Streate stadith 4 great maine stones wrought above in conum by Mannes hand.
They be set in 3 several Feldes at this Tyme.
The first is a 20 foote by estimation in higeth and an 18 foote in cumpace. The stone towards the ground is sumwhat square, and so up to the midle, and then wrought with certen rude boltells in conum. But the very toppe thereof is broken of a 3 or 4 footes. Other 2 of like shap stand in another feld a good But shot of: and the one of them is bigger then the other; and they stand within a 6 or 8 fote one of the other.
The fourth standith in a several feld a good stone cast from the other, and is bigger and higher than any of the other 3. I esteme it to the waite of a 5 Waine Lodes or more.
Inscription could I none find yn these stones; and if there were it might be woren out; for they be sore woren and scalid with wether.
I take to be a trophaea a Romanis posita in the side of Watheling Streat,as yn a place most occupied in Yorneying ad so most yn sighte.
A German traveler, Lupold Von Wedel visited the stones in 1584 and recorded seeing five stones, four upright and one lying on the ground. Thirty years later another antiquarian, William Camden visited the stones but only three were left upright, and again, no mention of a fifth stone..
Neere unto this bridge Westward wee saw in three divers little fields foure huge stones of pyramidall forme, but very rudely wrought, set as it were in a streight and direct line. The two Pyramides in the middest, whereof the one was lately pulled downe by some that hoped, though in vaine, to finde treasure, did almost touch one another. The uttermore stand not far off, yet almost in equall distance from these on both sides.
John Aubrey’s notes in his Monumenta Britannica complied between 1665 and 1693. Aubrey thought that the stones may have been part of a great stone circle. No evidence has ever been found to support his theory.
Illustration from Itinerarium Curiosum II by William Stukeley. 1776
Illustration from The Strangers Guide: Being a concise history & description of Boroughbridge by Boroughbridge. 1846
The fourth stone, toppled by treasure hunters, is thought to have been broken-up and used as the foundation for the bridge over the nearby River Tutt in 1621. There is an account of the top of the stone being taken and placed into the garden of Aldborough Manor.
If its lower portion was embedded in the bridge it may still be there. A local belief that the upper segment was set up in the grounds of Aldborough Manor (Lukis 1877, 134), has been kindly confirmed by the present owner, Sir Henry Lawson-Tancred (pers. comm.).
The Devil’s Arrows: The Archaeology of a Stone Row by Aubrey Burl. Yorkshire Archaeological Journal. Vol 63. 1991
Graeme and I have recently been discussing the fate of the fourth stone and decided to take a look to see if we could locate any traces of the missing stone.
We started at the stones themselves. There is currently a crop of beets in the field so we followed the well worn path around field margin. Whilst we were looking at the possible cupmarks on the northern stone we got chatting to a woman who told us that, whilst walking her dogs in the area, she had once experienced an energy at the stones that was so powerful it had made her feel ill.
I have enhanced this image a little to highlight the cupmarks on the stone.
We also noticed that there were lots of ladybirds on the stones, it turns out that these are Harlequin Ladybirds, an invasive species that are said to be responsible for the decline of our native species.
I’ve recently read that the grooves on the tops of the stone were caused by The Devil trying to hang his grandmother from the stone. The tale does not say why he was trying to hang her or whether he was successful. I was just surprised to learn that the prince of darkness had a grandmother
The road beside the field is currently being improved to provide access to a new housing development. It is always a little disturbing to see a development encroaching upon an ancient site.
We took a walk down to the bridge over the River Tutt to see if we could spot any remains of the stone.
The Arrows are made of Millstone Grit and are thought to have been brought to the site from Plumpton Rocks, a distance of over 8 miles. The local building stone is a fairly uniform. fine grained sandstone so the coarser grained gritstone, with it’s large quartz grains is quite easy to identify. We didn’t find any evidence of gritstone in the bridge but Graeme did spot three large dressed gritstone blocks in the kerbing leading from the bridge.
We decided to head over to nearby Aldborough to see if we could track down the top fragment of the fourth stone.
Aldborough is a small village on the outskirts of Boroughbridge. It is the site of a walled Roman town called Isurium Brigantum. We enquired at the Manor House regarding the whereabouts of the stone, the owner told us that they have looked for evidence of the stone in the manor grounds but not found any trace of it.
In the centre of the village is a large column called the Battle Cross. A nearby plaque states that the cross commemorates the Battle of Boroughbridge in 1322. The plaque also mentions Thomas Earl of Lancaster who was in collusion with the Scots. A Yorkshireman rarely passes up the opportunity to have a pop at his Lancastrian neighbours.
The local church is reputed to be built on the site of a Roman Temple, there is a carving inside the church which is thought to portray Mercury.
Having arrived at a dead end in our search for the fourth stone, we decided to visit the site where, according to legend, the devil stood when he threw the Arrows, How Hill.
How Hill is just over 7 miles west of the Arrows. The first written record of the hill is from 1346 and refers to it as the site of a medieval chapel dedicated to Saint Michael, possibly a place of pilgrimage. The site became a ruin after the dissolution of the monasteries in 1539. The tower was rebuilt in 1719 and further domestic buildings were added to it during the 19th century. It is likely that the tower was designed by Sir John Vanbrugh
What surprised both Graeme and I were the views from the hill, although relatively low lying it has a fantastic viewshed, the Pennines in the West, the North York Moors in the east and as far south as Drax power station.
The tower is currently boarded-up, it’s a substantial building, quite singular in design. It has a slight air of malice about it, I’m not sure I’d like to visit it in the dark, as Graeme once did. On checking the BGS website I discovered that the bedrocks around the hill are Plumpton Gritstone, the same stone as the Arrows, perhaps the folklore is right and the Arrows did originate from here.
The Devil’s Arrows should be viewed as one of a number of prehistoric monuments that align roughly north-south through North Yorkshire. I recently found this lovely pdf booklet which details this alignment. Booklet
I’m not sure if anyone has ever tried to tie-in the Arrows with the Prehistoric monuments that extend eastwards towards the Yorkshire coast, both Graeme and I believe that it is not unreasonable to think that there may be a connection.
I have a new website, a work in progress. It’s called Prehistoric Postcards. https://thesmellofdextrin.wordpress.com/
Inspired by Robert Macfarlane’s wonderful book, Landmarks, here is part four of a North Yorkshire glossary. Most of these words were collected by Richard Blakeborough, Rev. Atkinson & M. Morris in the mid- late nineteenth century.
Airt – direction point of the compass. Aither – furrowed ground. Balk – A strip of land. Bargh, Barugh, Barf – A hill forming part of a low ridge. Beck – Small stream. Beeld, bield, beild – A shelter from weather. Bladdry – Soft splashy mud. Blashment – Melted snow or soft mud. Bleb – Air rising in water. Blue-flint – Whinstone from the Cleveland Dyke. Blutherment – Puddle or slush. Boddums – Lowest ground. Bounder-stoups – Upright boundary stones. Bow-bridge – A packhorse bridge. Brigg – a natural promintary into the sea or bridge. Brae – The overhanging bank of a river. Brant – Steep. Cam – The sloping bank from a hedge bottom. Carr – Low-lying boggy ground. Causer, caus’ay – A paved footpath. Cinder Hills – Ancient slag heaps. Cleugh – A narrow ravine. Clum – Sodden heavy clayey land. Coo-yat – Cow pasture. Coo-grip – a channel to carry off urine. Covin-scar – A low, flat expanse of rock. Cross gang/gate – A crossroads. Crow-ling – Heath. Dale – A valley. Dale-end The end or widest part of a dale. Dale-heead – The upper and narrowest portion of a dale. Dike – A ditch. Dike-back – The bank forming one side of a ditch. Dub – A large pond. Dump – Deep hole in the bed of a river. Faugh – Fallow land. Fold Garth – Farmyard. Foss – A waterfall. Gain-way – A shorter path. Garth – A small enclosure of land. Gate – a way, road or street. Gessing-land – Grassland. Gill – A narrow valley or ravine. Gimmal – A narrow passage. Gote – A narrow natural ravine. Griff – A deep narrow valley. Grip – A channel or small ditch. Hag – A broken rugged bank. Hays – Enclosure fence acting as a boundary. Head rig – The part of a field where the horses and plough turn. Hipping steeans – Stepping stones. Holl – A deep depression in the land. Holm – Land which is at times surrounded by water. Hoss trod – A bridle road. Hottery – A bumpy, uneven road. Houe, Howe – A Hill. Hossocks – Coarse tufts of grass. Ing – low lying pasture. Intak – Enclosed land from a common for cultivation. Kansh – A hard ridge of gravel or a rock in a river, dangerous to navigation. Keld – A spring of water. Liberty – The parish or township. Lits – A spring or source of a stream. Loning, loaning, lonnin’, lo’nin – A narrow lane. Marrish – Low lying ground liable to flood. Mere, mere-stone – A boundary mark or stone. Moor stone – A large exposed stone embedded in the soil of the moor. Nab – A hill, rocky point, headland. Ness – A projecting headland. Neuk – a corner of a field. Out-end, out-gang, out-gaat – An exit, way out. Owergait – A gap in a hedge. Plother, plodder – Soft mud. Rack – a bend in a river. Ramper – The sloping side of a raised footpath. Rands, reeands – The unploughed edges of a field. Rein – The sides of a field overgrown with brushwood. Riding – An open space in a wood. Rigg – A long narrow hill. Rook, ruck –A pile, a carefully made heap of stones/turf. Scau’p – Bare spots of rock and stones on a hillside. Skaff, skeeaf – A rough, steep, broken bank. Slack – The hollow part of an undulation in the ground. Sloke – The scum or slime on stagnant water. Smout-hole – An opening at the bottom of a wall to allow hares or sheep to pass through. Snake-stone – An Ammonite. Spout – A waterfall.Sprunt – A steep hill. Strand – The beach. Sump – A bog or marsh. Swang – A boggy stretch of land. Swarth – The quality and quantity of grass upon the land. Swidden – Part of the moor cleared by burning. Syke – A small stream. Toft – A small grove of trees. Trod – A footpath. Upgang – A pathway up a hill. Warp – Alluvium. Wath – A ford. White flint – A hard, sedimentary rock found on the moors and used for road stone. Wyke – A small bay on the coast.
The Hanging Stone is a large rocky outcrop of the Staithes Sandstone Group. The outcrop lies at the northern end of Ryston Bank. The steep sided outcrop has the appearance of a huge natural altar, the flat-topped platform has extensive uninteruppted views over the Tees Valley, Guisborough and the coast to the North and East. The recent clearance of the modern forestry plantation also allows views to Roseberry Topping and the Cleveland Hills.
I have not been able to establish the origin of the name Hanging Stone but the are many sites across Britain that bear the same name, including many on the North York Moors, some refer to similar outcrops and others to single standing stones, the most famous being Stonehenge. I think the most obvious explanation of the name is that these outcrops, often famed for being local viewpoints, simply ‘hang’ over the landscape. Eilert Ekwall, a renown researcher of the origins of place names investigated the origins of the village of Hanging Chedder in Lancashire, he discovered previous references to the name as Hingande and Hengande, simply meaning ‘steep’.
What particularly interests me is the possible significance this outcrop may have had to our prehistoric ancestors. There is a trackway which runs below the outcrop, the trackway runs from Hutton Lowcross to Great Ayton Moor and Roseberry Topping, both areas of activity during the Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age periods. Along and aligned to this track are the remains of four Bronze Age burial mounds. This may indicate that the track marked a significant boundary during the Bronze age and the monuments were placed on this highly visible ridge as a territorial marker.
Placing burial mounds along the top of a prominent ridge would announce the presence of the ancestors of the people who lived there, legitimising ownership of the territory. The alignment of burial mounds is a common occurrence on the North York Moors, Frank Elgee surveyed and mapped many groups on the NYM for his book Early Man In North East Yorkshire, published in 1930. In the 1980’s Don Spratt published a study on North Yorkshire moorland barrow alignments and concluded that they could possibly mark Bronze Age territorial boundaries.
Archaeologist Richard Bradley, amongst others, has discussed the origins of prehistoric monuments and their connection with natural features such as rock outcrops. Perhaps the Hanging Stone was a place of significance to the hunter gatherers of the Mesolithic period and this significance has been carried across the millennia to be finally encoded in the ritual landscape of our Bronze Age ancestors. Evidence of Mesolithic hunter gatherer groups using prominent view points as temporary camps has been found at nearby sites such as Highcliff Nab, Eston Nab and Beacon Moor, all of which are intervisible from the Hanging Stone. All of these sites are also associated with later prehistoric activity and monuments. As Bradley states, ‘Landscapes can be monuments and monuments can be landscapes.’
Whatever the origins of the Hanging Stone, it is only a short walk from Hutton Lowcross and it’s a great place to sit and take in the landscape.
The Place Names of Lancashire. Eilert Ekwall 1922
Early Man in North Yorkshire. Frank Elgee 1930
Prehistoric Boundaries on the North Yorkshire Moors. Don Spratt 1981
The Significance of Monuments. Richard Bradley 1998