I was recently browsing through the Keys To The Past website and came across a brief reference to a possible Iron Age hillfort at St. Andrew’s church on the outskirts of Bishop Auckland at a place known locally as South Church. Churches built upon Prehistoric sites are always of interest, sadly I couldn’t find any more information on the hillfort. I knew that there was an ancient cross in the church so I decided to go and have a look.
St Andrew Auckland, or South Church, the ancient mother church of Bishop Auckland. Approaching it, the church stands dominatingly above mean houses in a churchyard raised above the level of the road, a long impressive building with transepts and two storied porch. It is one of the great churches of County Durham, founded as a collegiate church, and is almost entirely of the late 13th century…The greatest treasure is the Anglo-Saxon Cross.H Thorold
Walking around the church grounds I could find no evidence of the hillfort. I was met at the church door by the Warden who asked me if I was there for the funeral? I told him that I was there to have a look at the ancient cross, he hesitated and told me that the church was usually locked but had opened for a funeral, he said that the funeral wasn’t due to start for half an hour so I could have a quick look around.
The cross is is essentially a reproduction incorporating a number of fragments that were discovered during building work in 1891. The Cross fragments have been dated to the late 8th – early 9th century. I’ve visited a number of churches where various fragments have been stuck onto the walls or displayed on window ledges, this three dimensional reproduction is far more powerful.
The carvings are beautiful
This panel is rather strange, the sculptor was obviously very skilled, look at the beautiful drape of the robes, …the fingers!
The current church of St. Andrew’s was founded by Bishop Carileph who was also known as William of Calais, he was the second Norman Bishop of Durham and a close advisor to William the Conqueror and his successor William Rufus, Bishop Carileph was also responsible for the re-building of Durham Cathedral.
He also was responsible for removing the existing ‘non celibate’ monks from Durham and replacing them with Benedictine Monks from the monasteries at Jarrow and Wearmouth. To achieve this he had seek the approval of the King, a French Archbishop and finally the Pope, which, to me, implies that removing the monks was a matter of great importance to both the church and the state. The monks were sent to communities throughout the County including Auckland, Billingham and Darlington.
The ‘non-celibate’ aspect of the description of the monks implies that they were somehow disorderly but I don’t think that this was the case. I suspect that the Durham monks followed the ancient Celtic tradition of Christianity, they were the keepers of the shrine of St. Cuthbert, a group known as The Culdees.
The Culdees were a monastic group who followed the Celtic Christian tradition. I first read about them many years ago in Lewis Spence’s book The Mysteries of Britain published in 1905. The book is of its time, Spence was interested in the occult, folklore and Scottish Nationalism, the book covers a whole range of topics from megaliths to druids, bards, Arthurian legend, grail myths and the Egyptian cult of the dead. Spence viewed the Culdees as direct descendants of the Druids.
‘They married, and their abbots held high office by hereditary right, so that in Armagh fifteen generations held the episcopate successively. They dwelt in colleges, practicing music as well as the mechanical arts…They condemned the mass, paid no respect to holy relics and refused to offer up prayers for the dead. In fact any less resembling Roman practice than theirs can scarcely be imagined.’L Spence
Removing the Culdees from Durham, allowed the Bishop to surround himself with a trustworthy administration who were aligned to the Roman church and loyal to the County Palatine of Durham where the Prince Bishop’s powers were almost equal to that of the Norman King.
County Durham. A Shell Guide. Henry Thorold. 1980. Faber & Faber.
The Mysteries of Britain. Secret Rites & Traditions of Ancient Britain. Lewis Spence. 1905 reprinted 1994. Senate
..no security is as effective as a regular flow of welcomed visitors. A parish church is a church open to all. A church shut except for services is the meeting house of a sect.
Simon Jenkins. England’s thousand best churches. 2002
To-night it is the New Year’s night, to-morrow is the day, And we are come for our right and for our ray, As we used to do in old King Henry’s day. Sing, fellows, sing Hagman heigh !
If you go to the bacon-flitch, cut me a good bit, Cut, cut and low, beware of your man ; Cut, and cut round, beware of your thumb, That I and my merry men may haye some. Sing, fellows, sing Hagman heigh !
If you go to the black ark, bring me ten mark, Ten mark, ten pound, throw it down upon the ground, That I and my merry men may have some. Sing, fellows, sing Hagman heigh !
If New Year’s Eve night wind blows south,
it betokenth warmth and growth;
If west, much mild and fish in the sea;
If north, more cold and storms there will be;
If east, will bear much fruit;
If north-east, flee it, man and brute.
Happy New Year Everyone
I recently saw this wonderful illustration of Yorkshire Megaliths. I contacted the author, Adam Morgan Ibbotson, and he kindly sent me a copy.
I was rather chuffed, Adam wrote one of my favourite books of 2021, Cumbria’s Prehistoric Monuments. It’s a lovely book, comprehensive, very readable with beautiful photographs, maps and illustrations. If prehistory and big old stones are your thing, you’ll love this. You can buy it here
Wandering Red Way onto Near Moor
Near Moor is a moor on the western margins of the Cleveland Hills. The moor is at its highest in the north-east where it meets the wooded escarpment edge of the Cleveland hills, it then slopes gently southwards towards Crabdale. Near moor is bounded by Far Moor To the East, Pamperdale Moor to the South and the valley of Scarth Nick and Scarth Wood Moor to the west.
The moor is managed for grouse shooting. The vegetation of the moor is predominantly heather with patches of moorland grasses and sedges.
The rocks here are mainly Jurassic Sandstones, formed 170 million years ago in shallow estuaries and deltas. To the north, below the escarpment edge, there are many old jet workings. Blocks of ‘White Flint’ can be found on the moor-top.
Both Near Moor and the adjacent Scarth Wood Moor were used by our ancient ancestors, there are the remains of ancient walls, enclosures, trackways and cairns dotted across both moors.
There are a number of cup-marked rocks on the moor, all are very weathered and barely recognisable.
There are the remains of quarries on the margins of the moor, local stone masons also used the prehistoric walls as a source of stone.
Nothing beside remains. Round the decayOzymandias. P. B. Shelley.
Of that colossal Wreck, boundless and bare
The lone and level sands stretch far away.
I recently spotted this stone leaning against the wall at Tocketts Mill. It puzzled me for a while, I had seen a picture of a similar stone but couldn’t remember where. Eventually I remembered, the wonderful Hidden Teesside website
The stone is the base of a Verjuice or Beam Press. Elizabeth Ogilvie writes
..Verjuice or Beam Presses which were used to produce a kind of acid apple vinegar known as verjuice made mostly from crab apples and used in cooking and medicine. The method of crushing the apples was simple. Crab apples were placed on the base stone, a weight was positioned on top and pressed down by means of a wooden beam wedged at one end into a hollow of a tree stump or groove cut into a stone wall.An Illustrated Guide to Stone Antiquities on the North Yorkshire Moors. E Ogilvie. 1996
The Crab Tree
Another Cleveland usage is, when a mare foals to hang up ‘the cleansings ’ (the placenta) in a tree, preferably in a thorn or failing that a crab tree; the motive assigned being to secure ‘luck with the foal.’ Should the birth take place in the fields, this suspension is most carefully attended to, while as for the requirements of such events at the homestead, in not a few instances there is a certain tree not far from the farm-buildings still specially marked out for the reception of these peculiar pendants. In one instance lately, I heard of a larch tree so devoted, but admittedly in default of the thorn; the old thorn-tree long employed for the purpose having died out.
Again, a lamb that is dropped dead, or that dies while still very young, is customarily hung up in a tree—properly in a thorn, though any fruit or berry-bearing tree will do. In the last case under my notice, the tree was a rowan-tree or mountain-ash. In all these cases the same principle is, I think, beyond question involved. Certainly in the case of the mare the offering would originally have been to Odin; probably in all cases of suspension on a berry-bearing tree the same may be true.
J. C. Atkinson, N. & Q., 4th S., vol ii., pp. 556, 557.