Saltburn Chalybeate

Ruddle

Chalybes – The Chalybes or Chaldoi were a people mentioned by Classical authors as living in Pontus and Cappadocia in northern Anatolia during Classical Antiquity. Their territory was known as Chaldia, extending from the Halys to Pharnakeia and Trabzon in the east, the Chaldoi/Chalybes, Mossynoikoi, and Tubal/Tabal/Tibareni, are counted among the first ironsmith nations by classical authors.

Source

Fe2O3

Ochre

Blood-red. Was it blood?
Was it red-ochre, for warming the dead?
Haematite to make immortal
The precious heirloom bones, the family bones.

From Red by Ted Hughes

Adventures in the Anthropocene

One ton of iron produces one ton of slag

Towards the end of the 19th Century the furnaces of Cleveland were producing 2.5 million tons of pig iron a year.slag-s

scoriaˈskɔːrɪə
noun
noun: scoria; plural noun: scoriae
  1. basaltic lava ejected as fragments from a volcano, typically with a frothy texture.
    “chunks of black scoria”
  2. slag separated from molten metal during smelting.
    Origin -Late Middle English (denoting slag from molten metal): via Latin from Greek skōria ‘refuse’, from skōr‘dung’. The geological term dates from the late 18th century.